The meat processing industry is one of the largest consumers of total freshwater used in the agricultural and livestock industry worldwide. An electrical current is passed through the animal's brain via a large pair of tongs, causing temporary loss of consciousness. therefore, the electrode(s) are not positioned on the animal's neck or muzzle, for example for rabbits: when electrical head-only stunning equipment for rabbits is used to make contact with the muzzle of the rabbit and not span the brain, this will cause electroimmobilization only and not an effective stun, for head only electric stunning, the stun-to-stick interval should not exceed 15 seconds for most species, for head-to-body stunning, the outcome is generally an irreversible outcome, when done properly. The section reads as follows  Either of the following two methods of slaughtering and handling are hereby found to be humane: a) In the case of cattle, calves, horses, mules, sheep, swine, and other livestock, all animals are rendered insensible to pain by a single blow or gunshot or an electrical, chemical or other means that is rapid and effective, before being shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast, or cut. For slaughtering, before the neck cutting, chickens are immobilized manually or immobilized using shackles. The Humane Slaughter Act, or the Humane Methods of Livestock Slaughter Act (P.L. WELCOME TO MY We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. And because fewer animals were injured, fewer carcasses were bruised – improving meat quality. This method is also used for ritual slaughtering of sheep and cattle. According to scientific evidence, the zabihah method of slaughter is actually one of the most humane types of slaughter. Process of slaughtering to which it applies: Gas stunning methods. If a landmark other than the midline frontal is used then it will require documented evidence or validation by the licence holder to show the alternative approach can stun the animal properly: for example, a poll (top of the head) entry using firearms may be more useful for heavily horned sheep and all goats, captive bolt stunning may be penetrative or non-penetrative, both methods rely on the outcome of instantaneous and massive disruption of brain function to render the animal unconscious, Cartridges with compressed air, gunpowder or a spring under tension drive the bolt either against the skull or through it, the outcome causes unconsciousness from the combined effect of the concussive blow to the head and the penetrating bolt creating damage to the brain as it passes through and retracts, the impact alone creates pressure or shock waves that have multiple effects disrupting normal brain function, including flattening of the cerebrum contralateral to the shot, the passage and retraction of the bolt creates additional damage from a cavitation effect, hemorrhage, bone fragmentation, crushing, laceration and tearing of axons and blood vessels, even when the targeting is not optimal, such as when the animal moves, the animal may still be correctly stunned because of the massive damage from the impact and local damage of the bolt; therefore, slightly lower or slightly higher targeting can still work as long as essential parts of the brainstem are still damaged, however if the relevant structures are not damaged or the damage is limited, the animal may be still conscious or partially conscious and will require a second stun, targeting too high will only reach the cerebellum, targeting too low will only slightly damage the frontal cortex with the undesirable outcome that the animal is wounded but conscious, the outcome relies on the mushroom head causing unconsciousness from the concussive impact of the blow alone, rapid oscillations in the resulting pressure waves cause the resulting loss of consciousness, there may also be concurrent fracturing of the skull from the impact and internal brain hemorrhage, it requires extreme accuracy to be effective; therefore the landmarks are extremely important, for this reason, it should be used only in very young and small animals such as poultry, rabbits, and ruminants weighing less than 10kg and the head should be well-restrained to help with the accuracy of the blow, However, in immature animals, this method may crush the skull and result in an ineffective stun. the design, caliber, charge, bolt length, bolt tip, and bolt velocity are: appropriate for the type of animal, as per the manufacturer's directions and/or specifications, effective for the licence holder's intended use, there are a sufficient number of equipment so they can be rotated to prevent overheating, and can be available as a backup stunning method, equipment is used, cleaned, and maintained, and stored as per the manufacturer's recommendations, charge cartridges are stored in a clean dry area and have not aged excessively, bolt velocity is checked by a velocity checker, or similar means as stated in the manufacturer's directions, bolt(s) retract completely, as designed, after each use, the procedure including test equipment and frequency for testing the stunning equipment, frequency should include at a minimum at the startup of production, production shift changes, before each new lot of birds or employee shift changes. Shields, Sara J., Raj, A.B.M, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 13:281 – 299, 2010: Girasole, Mariagrazia, et al, Ital J Food Saf. The most common one is manual cervical dislocation, and this method dislocates the neck from the brain stem, and also stretches the carotid arteries. licence holder has demonstrated that no other means of stunning is practical or works as well: for example, for horses, firearms may give a better stun than captive bolt stunning, depending on stun pen layout, horse temperament and nature, equipment operators are trained and competent to use the equipment and recognize the signs of an effective stun, caliber and range are suitable for the species and class of animal, the ammunition selected for the species and body type to be slaughtered provides effective stunning while minimizing over-penetration or the effects of misdirected bullets or ricochet, ammunition is stored in a clean dry area and has not aged excessively, the firearm is cleaned and maintained and stored to ensure it functions effectively, a bullet proof barrier between the stunning area and the kill floor to protect people from the effects of misdirected bullets, slugs, or ricochet, remote viewing to allow monitoring of stun efficacy and bleed-rail insensibility with protection from the effects of misdirected bullets or ricochet, a visible warning system to indicate when firearms are being discharged, back-up stunning equipment, readily available. When the current passes through heart as well, either simultaneously or sequentially, this can cause cardiac fibrillation with subsequent cardiac arrest and death. The electrodes, whether hand-held or automated (multiple bird systems) must still span the brain to produce an effective stun. Equipment that is designed for a single point contact with the head or neck (for example, an electric knife) may not produce an effective stun; there is the risk that it will only immobilize (paralyze) the bird without inducing unconsciousness. Slaughter houses have no such ethical basis for their methods. The size of the box should be just wide enough to prevent the animal from turning around, and so be difficult to stun. Halal slaughter is was one of the more humane methods available to the meat industry and the only method acceptable for Muslim consumers. Swine 1. It could be penetrating or non-penetrating (percussion stunning). Examples of these other cases include, the brine level being too low or the bird being too small to contact the water properly. This research paper discuss the difference between the halal (Islamic) and the recent (conventional) methods of animals slaughter and explain the effect of each method on the meat safety and hygiene. All cattle killed in Australian abattoirs are restrained upright and stunned during slaughter, including tho… 25, 44). Stunning should fulfill the following requirements in order to demonstrate the outcome of avoidable suffering to the individual food animal: Assessing the state of unconsciousness in the stunned animal is not always a straightforward task. procedures. Please do not read further if you feel you may be negatively affected by the content. the recommended equipment settings for each size of animal that is stunned including specification of: In cases where the manufacturer's recommendations are not used, there should be documented evidence or a validation study in the establishment to support the alternative approach, the voltage and amperage are monitored, easy to see and are recorded on an ongoing basis throughout the shift, the amperage is the more important parameter to assess effective stunning, the length of time of the current is applied on the animal is measured and recorded, a backup and well maintained stunning equipment should be quickly available as a deviation procedure. Electroimmobilization may occur if the current bypasses the brain in the multiple bird electrical waterbath or plate systems. The basic slaughtering process. In order to safeguard the welfare of the birds to be killed, it is necessary for the guide to be both thorough and illustrated. There is the risk for any stunning method to fail; however with well trained and qualified staff, equipment used according to the manufacturer's specifications and which is always kept well maintained, these risks should be controllable to the point that the outcome of avoidable suffering can be achieved. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. If done correctly, the circuit from electrifying the electrodes will produce an electric field in the brain that depolarizes or hyperpolarizes the neuronal membranes resulting in an epileptiform seizure, which renders the animal unconscious. University, De très nombreux exemples de phrases traduites contenant "poultry slaughtering" – Dictionnaire français-anglais et moteur de recherche de traductions françaises. Animals that are electroimmobilized are still conscious and sensible to stimuli, including pain stimuli, Therefore electrical stunning parameters should be used that can induce epileptiform seizure activity in the brain. Humane Methods of Slaughter Act Originally passed in 1958, the law that is enforced today by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) was passed as the Humane Slaughter Act of 1978. A ramp at the entry to the waterbath or plate system with water should be sloped to swing the birds into the waterbath, The ramp should also be either insulated or isolated by inserting a layer of non-conducting material (in the form of sheets or rods) between the ramp and the birds to avoid the birds making direct contact with any electrified water on the ramp, CAS stunning in Canadian federal slaughter facilities, using CO, The resulting acidification inhibits neuronal activity and produces an anaesthetic like effect, For current systems in use in North America, pigs are exposed to induction levels of high concentrations of CO. These trained employees should be able to monitor: signs of return to sensibility for the food animal species and type of stunning equipment or system used. Abstract. 1. This guide is intended to instruct smallholders in the most humane methods of slaughtering poultry. Anal region: Clear skin carefully from around anus avoiding puncturing it … 1901 et seq.) Emergency killing of poultry are often methods that are simple and quick to use. conventional methods of slaughtering used in the western countries, i.e. A stunning box is the most common method of restraining cattle (Fig. Stunning methods may be irreversible which means the animal will not regain consciousness although the heart may still be beating. Not only can the stunning method itself cause suffering if ineffectively done, it can result in the completely unacceptable situation where a still conscious animal is exposed to further dressing procedures that will cause it great anguish before it dies. The licence holder's written PCP should include: written documentation that the equipment complies with the federal Firearms Act and all applicable provincial and local legislation and that firearms are well maintained as per manufacturer's recommendations, can be used as the primary method of stunning birds or rabbits in low volume establishments because of the slower line speeds, requires equipment appropriate for the species. The slaughtering method of animals is common to Judaism and Islam in terms of cutting the neck and avoiding cutting the spinal cord of animal at the beginning of slaughter [10]. However, it may not always provide a consistent uniform stunning concentration of CO, This may lead to a failure to stun some birds or that some birds regain consciousness prior to bleeding, For some systems in use, a more gradual increase in CO. Total dwell time will depend on class or species of poultry, average weight of birds, equipment and parameters used and whether the outcome is intended to be reversible or irreversible stunning. The pre-stun facilities in lairage, including gondolas and automated gates to move the pigs, and the stunning chambers, pit, in addition to the post-stun facilities, should be specifically designed: for CAS stunning and for the size and weight of pigs, to avoid injury, overcrowding or unnecessary stress, to continuously measure and display the gas concentration at induction and at the point of maximum gas concentration, the time of exposure should also be displayed or indicated, so animals can be visually monitored during the induction phase for any behaviour indicating distress from adverseness to the inhaled gas (agitation and escaping behaviour), so animals can be accessed if the conveyance system fails, taking into account personnel safety, so the adjacent work area is equipped with gas-measuring equipment that continuously measure and display the gas concentrations, to provide a visible and audible warning to staff, if the gases used in stunning exceed the maximum allowed in the surrounding work area, so the concentration of gases in the work area do not exceed those permitted under provincial and/or federal OSH requirements, it is recommended to use the gondola group system for pit type of gas stunning systems since pigs are generally calmer when stunned in groups than when moved in single file to the stunner, a protocol for animal handling to be carried out by competent employees during pre-stun to minimize stress, the gas concentrations and time of exposure are documented in the PCP and selected to minimize the stress of induction of anesthesia, gas mixtures and methods that used are those proven to be effective and humane. In most traditional slaughters, however, there are no fast rules,at least in Africa, hence some o… the protocol for level of salinity used and its adjustment including: manufacturers recommended procedures to enhance the salinity of water to improve electrical conductivity, as required, correct flow of the brine to avoid preshock from the brine flowing out the entrance to the bath, maintenance and cleaning protocol of shackles for electric contact to prevent poor electrical conductivity, the protocol for staff for stopping the line in the stunning and bleeding areas in the event of a problem or communicating problems so that corrective action procedures can be immediately taken, the system used should have meters or the proper software if computerized that display or record the amperage (ammeter) and/or volts (voltmeter), frequency and duration of the stun, meters (voltmeters and ammeters) are best installed where clearly visible to staff operating the electrical water bath or plate stunning systems and to any person who monitors, verifies, inspects or audits the system, frequency should include at a minimum at the startup of production, production shift, before each new lot of birds or employee shift changes. 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